An instrument is an engineering device used for identifying, measuring, recording, or controlling the value of a given quantity. There is a diverse variety of industrial instruments, many of them highly specialized and designed for specific applications. Speedometers, scales, and clocks are examples of fairly common instruments used to measure velocity, weight, and time, respectively. But engineers and manufacturers also rely on more specialized equipment, such as galvanometers for calculating electrical current or hydraulic regulators for controlling applied pressure. Such instruments are not only helpful, but often necessary for many industrial projects.
Controls are used to manage industrial machinery, tools, or processes to ensure that the elements within a given project function properly on their own or in coordination with one another. This type of management can involve analysis of a system's output, or reactive measures to adjust workflow. For example, a control valve can regulate the pressure, volume, or direction of flow in a transmission system, while a mainframe control panel provides users with an interface for directing computer operations.A membrane switch
is an electrical switch for turning a circuit on and off. Both manual and automated controls, such as CNC, are used in industrial processes.